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The following newspaper article appeared in the Feb. 7, 1991 issue of The County Journal. I wrote it at the beginning of mining operations in Ladysmith by Kennecot Copper Corporation (a.k.a. Flambeau Mining Corporation).
Looking back from the perspective of 2019, here is the upshot of the now extinct Flambeau Mine.
The Ladysmith Mine produced $132 million in gold, $16.5 million in silver, and $400 million in copper for a total of $548 million dollars.
James Richard Bailey
PRINTED BY PERMISSION OF THE COUNTY JOURNAL
Far from a silent spring
What's all the mining hoopla?
By James R. Bailey
This year, along with ice-out and the blooming of the trilliums, there will be a new signal that spring has arrived in northern Wisconsin.
Residents of Ladysmith will witness blasting and the rumble of mammoth dozers as excavation begins on a thirty-two acre open pit copper mine near the Flambeau River.
The final approval to begin operations was granted January 14 by David Schwarz, administrator of the State Division of Hearings and Appeals. This came after a fourteen year-long legal battle between Kennecot Copper Corporation and a coalition of local residents and environmental groups.
The announcement was big news. It was the top headline in the January 16 Milwaukee Journal, placed above the failure of U.S./Iraq last minute "peace talks."
What is all the fuss about? A few moments spent studying the ancient geology of Wisconsin may help.
Some 1.8 billion years ago this area was covered by an ocean. Up through its floor volcanic eruptions brought iron, copper, uranium, vanadium, gold, silver, and zinc, as well as trace elements of heavy metals, toxins like arsenic, cadmium and chromium.
Unfortunately, these same eruptions also brought up large amounts of sulfur. The underlying bedrock in much of northern Wisconsin is a sulfur-bearing volcanic structure.
As long as they remain underground, the sulfur, arsenic and other elements do not often enter into the water table. With the exception of cracks and seeps, sulfur pollution is not a problem.
When brought to the surface, however, sulfur combines with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid. The acid has a great capacity to dissolve toxins and carcinogens, allowing them to find their way into the water table.
This is not startling news to anyone. The mining companies know it, and the environmentalists know it. We've all heard of acid rain, and we're well aware of its effects on the environment.
But, as the Bureau of Mines is quick to point out, we are a nation of consumers. Their statistics state that "Each year, the average American needs 40,000 pounds of new minerals. During his or her lifetime, the average newborn baby will need
1,050 pounds of lead
1,050 pounds of zinc
1,750 pounds of copper
4,550 pounds of aluminum
91,000 pounds of iron/steel
360,500 pounds of coal
over a million pounds of stone, sand, gravel, cement and clay"
Mining proponents say that all of this has to come from somewhere. In the past, much of the metallic minerals have come from third world countries where there are few environmental restrictions, and where natives will work for a fraction of the pay demanded by workers in the industrialized nations.
Things have changed. Political stability is waning in Africa, South America and elsewhere. Easily accessible deposits are being used up. Transportation costs are rising.
Equally important, world market prices are rising. The value of copper ore doubled in the late 1980s. This means that ore bodies that were too expensive to mine previously have now become worth extracting.
Northern Wisconsin is one big ore body. "The list of companies competing for a share of the area's resources reads like a Who's Who of the international mining industry: Exxon, Kennecott, Amax, Kerr-McGee, Noranda, Chevron, Amoco and Western Nuclear," according to Al Gedicks, director of the Center For Alternative Mining Development Policy. "Taken together, these companies have leased the mineral rights to more than 500,000 acres in the northern two-thirds of Wisconsin."
Gedicks also points out that the geology of the Lake Superior region is similar to Canadian and South African areas where rich uranium deposits have been mined.
Not surprisingly, Kennecott Copper is owned by Noranda, Inc. A Canadian company, Noranda ranks sixth in terms of profits in that country. They are major players in minerals, forest products, manufacturing and energy.
Noranda, the company that owns Kennecott (which, in turn, owns Flambeau Mining Company) has since the mid-1950s operated the Elliot Lake uranium mines in Ontario. They are blamed by environmentalists for poisoning a seventy-five mile stretch of the Serpent River basin.
"In the 1960s, it was recognized that environmental mistakes had been made in the rush to feed nuclear power," admits geologist Julie Anderson of Noranda Explorations, Inc. "Today, however, those mistakes would not occur and the environmental repairs have been made and continue to be made."
This may be true, but among the variances granted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to Kennecott is exemption from the rule requiring them to monitor baseline water quality for radioactivity.
This means that they don't have to test the water for radioactivity before they start, as required by WDNR rules. If the public can't document how radioactive the ground water was before mining operations started, they cannot prove that it has become thusly contaminated.
The mine pit itself will come within 140 feet of the Flambeau River. This also required a variance from the minimum of 300 feet specified in the rules.
All together, Kennecott requested and got six such variances from meaningful sections of DNR rules.
Yes, the mine in Ladysmith will yield copper. It is one of the richest deposits in existence. Their permit specifically allows for the mining of uranium too, despite denial of any such interest by Kennecott. The lode also contains gold, another entire topic.
The story as related here thus far is only the tip of the iceberg. Closer to home is the Round Lake vanadium/titanium deposit in Sawyer County, the largest in North America. It is owned by Union Carbide.
Then there is the zinc deposit near the Wolf River at Crandon, Wisconsin. Said by the U.S. Department of the Interior to be the richest in the world, it is owned by Exxon.
According to a Wisconsin Department of Revenue study, "there is potential over the next twenty years for development of about ten mines in northern Wisconsin . . . [and] the possibility that a smelter may be built."
We will, in forthcoming articles, recount the legal maneuverings by both sides of the dispute. We will also investigate the environmental background of the mining companies, the treaty-rights connection, the local and regional efforts to halt mining and more.
— 30 —
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By James Richard Bailey
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Conspiracy Theory In America
By Lance deHaven-Smith
This is not the first time I've written about the bad rap that the term “conspiracy theory” has gotten here in the land of the free. Back in March I penned a piece entitled In defense of a phrase: conspiracy theory. I posted it on the supposedly liberal blog site, Daily KOS...from which I was promptly banned. Apparently founder Markos Moulitsas Zúniga isn't all that liberal. It is still available on that site but I am no longer allowed to post any contributions there.
Shortly thereafter I heard an interview with Lance deHaven-Smith, author of the book Conspiracy Theory in America. In this book he explores the social and media phenomenon of the excoriation of all references to events such as the assassination of President Kennedy, the toppling of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 and the disputed presidential elections of George W. Bush.
This scholarly work, published by the University of Texas Pres s is not what one might expect, judging by its title. The introduction alone is 24 pages long, which is none too much in setting the logical tone of the chapters that follow. To wit:
Given its title, you might think Conspiracy Theory in America is simply another addition to the long list of books criticizing conspiracy theories. You probably expect the book to blame the popularity of these theories on some flaw in American culture or character. No doubt, you have encountered this view many times, not just in books and magazines but also on radio and television.
Not so. If it is a criticism of anything, it demolishes the tin foil hat image invoked by conspiracy theory debunkers. Being mocked for questioning the cover-up of high crimes is the fate of anybody who has the courage to connect the dots, to put together obvious patterns. The author explains:
This is because most of the criticism directed at conspiracy beliefs is based on sentimentality about America's political leaders and institutions rather than on unbiased reasoning and objective observation. Most authors who criticize conspiracy theories not only disagree with the theories factual claims, they find the ideas [themselves] offensive.
In a nutshell, it is the premise of Conspiracy Theory In America that a compilation of documented facts coupled with a logical interpretation of the pattern that emerges from doing so can be summed up in the concept of State Crimes Against Democracy, or SCADs.
The author is a stickler for logic. He points out simple fallacies, such as false balance. In plain language, this is comparing apples to oranges or, more accurately, comparing the promise of an apple to a bushel full of them.
The visceral reaction to conspiracy theories is understandable. However, it often results in blanket dismissals that treat all conspiracy theories as equally ludicrous and insulting. In fact, conspiracy beliefs vary widely in terms of their supporting evidence and plausibility
deHaven-Smith develops this line of thought by tracing back in time to the first appearance of the phrase “conspiracy theory” in American media. Its first use can be documented as stemming from popular mistrust of the Warren Commission's conclusions as to the facts surrounding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
The commission's report was issued in September, 1964. That year, the New York Times printed five stories in which the phrase “conspiracy theory” was used. These days the phrase appears in that newspaper more than 140 times a year.
How did this happen? In the chapter titled The Conspiracy-Theory Conspiracy, our attention is directed to the following facts. Due to inconsistencies in the Warren Commission's report itself, by 1966 public opinion polls started to show that Americans were beginning to reject the report's conclusions. This is when the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) began a campaign mocking people's doubts, calling them “conspiracy theories.”
The author documents this by referring to a January, 1967 CIA “dispatch” that was numbered 1035-960, noting that the heading included the notation “PSYCH” and instructions to “destroy when no longer needed.” Their goal was not to promote the commission's report as accurate, but rather to sow doubt in the public's mind about its critics.
At first, conspiracy theories weren't mocked. Today it happens all of the time. People who are suspicious of any government malfeasance are routinely labeled “conspiracy theorists.” At this point, deHaven-Smith builds his case by going down the list of the biggest SCADs in history. The list is impressive.
Passage in 1798 of the Sedition Act
Election tampering in the 1824 presidential election
Manufacturing of a false pretext for war against Mexico resulting in the Mexican-American war of 1824
Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
Passage of the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution, giving corporations the same constitutional protections as persons
The disputed presidential election of 1876, when Rutherford B. Hayes was given the presidency by one vote of the Supreme Court
Spanish-American war initiated by sinking of the U.S. Battleship Maine in the harbor of Havana, Cuba
Purging of leftists from government and business boosting the career of Richard Nixon
Assassination of President Kennedy
Escalation of the Vietnam conflict into full fledged war based on the false flag Gulf of Tonkin incident
Election of President Nixon due to the “October Surprise” of 1968
U.S. Government burglary of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office in 1971 to discredit the Pentagon Papers
Watergate burglary and wiretapping of Democratic National Headquarters and subsequent cover-up to facilitate Nixon's reelection
Attempted assassination of President Reagan in 1981
Iran-Contra affair of 1984-86 to circumvent arms embargo against Iran in order to fund Nicaraguan Contra terrorists
Disputed elections of 2000 and 2004 that first brought George W. Bush into the presidency and then kept him there
Events of Sept. 11, 2001 as forerunners of invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq
Anthrax letter attacks of 2001
Assassination of Senator Paul Wellstone
False terror alerts of 2004 that boosted the reelection of President Bush
Author Lance deHaven-Smith solidly builds in Conspiracy Theory In America a case that State Crimes Against Democracy have been committed in America. He uses a scholarly analysis of conspiracy denial in the social sciences. He looks at European philosophers Karl Popper and Leo Strauss, who largely influenced a transformation of U.S. social science, moving it away from the well documented conspiracy beliefs of this country's Founders. These two actually blamed conspiracy theory for totalitarianism in Europe, World War 2, and the Holocaust. He says the following:
Popper is largely responsible for the mistaken idea that conspiracy theories are modern variants of ancient superstitions and nineteenth-century social prejudices. […] For his part, Strauss did not use the term “conspiracy theory,” but he advocated state political propaganda and covert actions to protect a society's traditional beliefs and ongoing illusions about its origins and virtues...
Looking at the conspiracy theory label, the American tradition of conspiracy belief, conspiracy denial in the social sciences, the ironic conspiracy to debunk conspiracy-theory, and his well documented exploration of State Crimes Against Democracy, deHaven-Smith ends up with a discussion of restoring American democracy. It pays to remember, he says, that the U.S.A. was established as a nation of laws, and that these shouldn't just apply to its citizens. These laws should apply to government as well.
Ask the basic question of crime investigation: Qui bono? Who benefits? This is the question that should have been asked from Day One.
Conspiracy Theory In America is an excellent presentation, logical and well documented. Do pick it up and see for yourself.
— 30 —
October 19, 2017 (originally posted 1/23/14)
The demise of liberalism
(Based on 'Death of the Liberal Class' by Chris Hedges)
There have traditionally been six pillars of the liberal movement in America.
Universities and colleges
The Democratic Party
It is easy to make the case that all six have been entirely taken over by big money. They have had their teeth pulled, been marginalized, or have been completely taken over by the 1%.
The institutions of higher learning used to be hotbeds of liberal thought. I was in college during the height of the Vietnam War, and the school was steeped in anti-war, racial equality and women's rights action. Now, universities and colleges are increasingly modeled along corporate lines. Unlike the days when a college education could be had at low cost, even no cost in some cases (GI Bill), it now comes with an unhealthy side dish of student debt that isn't even discharchgeable via bankruptcy.
In an article called How the American University Was Killed, In Five Easy Steps, ”this is how you break the evil, wicked, leftist academic class in America.”
(a) First, you defund public higher education.
(b) Second, you deprofessionalize and impoverish the professors (and continue to create a surplus of underemployed and unemployed Ph.D.s).
(c) You move in a managerial/administrative class who take over governance of the university.
(d) You move in corporate culture and corporate money.
(e) Destroy the students:
1. Dumb down the curriculum.
2. Make a higher education insanely costly, so that the only students who can
graduate debt free are those who were wealthy to begin with.
These days in the political arena the only religious voices being heard are those of the fundamentalist Christians. They are climate change denying mouthpieces for the fossil fuel industry. They hijack the political debate through the use of anti-abortion and anti-LGBT rights stances. Religious broadcasters have turned worship into big business. It is a rare day when you hear from leftist theologians who advocate for compassion.
The Democratic Party has been taken over by big business and wealthy individuals just like the Republican Party has. This has been the case ever since the Democrats achieved corporate fund raising parity with the Republicans during the Clinton years.
Even with Barack Obama in the White House, things have only gotten worse. No bankers went to jail for their criminal activities that derailed our economy in 2007. Health care reform turned into a gift to the health insurance industry. Civil rights have been severely eroded. On the international stage, the U.S.A. has accelerated it's illegal drone strikes against Middle Eastern countries. State legislatures have been hijacked by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a front for the billionaire class.
Where were any prominent Democrats when the Wisconsin Uprising took place? Nowhere to be seen. What about the famous Obama quote?
“And understand this: If American workers are being denied their right to organize and collectively bargain when I’m in the White House, I will put on a comfortable pair of shoes myself, I will walk on that picket line with you as President of the United States of America. Because workers deserve to know that somebody is standing in their corner.”
All we got out of him was a Tweet on the day before the 2012 recall election.
The press no longer even acknowledges the existence of people power. Newscasts always feature business news. We have a Nightly Business Report. Where is the “daily labor report?” When I was growing up, there was a major radio station in Chicago: WCFL. Those call letters stood for the Chicago Federation of Labor. It no longer exists in that form.
“Businesses act in their own self-interests, and in the interests of their shareholders. Big media companies are businesses -- $360 billion worth. They want a cultural, labor, legislative, regulatory, and judicial environment that allows them to maximize profits. But progressive politics are an immediate and tangible threat to their interests. In what alternate universe would big media companies permit a liberal bias in their own programming?! 'Liberal media bias' is more than a myth -- it's an absurd lie echoing from media corporations themselves, and resonating with the ignorant among us.” http://www.opednews.com/articles/The-Myth-of-Liberal-Media-by-Larry-Butler-130428-804.html
My generation remembers protest songs as hallmarks of the times. Popular culture was once a powerful force in the liberal universe. Music, literature, movies, TV shows and art carried powerful messages that bridged the gap between consciousness and reality. The song War by Edwin Starr was probably the most popular protest song of all time in America, reaching the #1 spot on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1970. Other songs, like those of Bob Dylan, Phil Ochs, and John Lennon dominated the thoughts of the 1960s and '70s youths.
The book Catch 22 by Joseph Heller was so wildly popular that to this day the phrase “catch 22” is embedded in our lexicon. The TV show Mash used tragedy and comedy in a gripping mixture with its message about the stupidity of war. Songs like Free Your Mind by En Vogue, A Change is Gonna Come by Sam Cooke, Blowin' in the Wind by Bob Dylan, Big Yellow Taxi by Joni Mitchell, and I Am Woman by Helen Reddy addressed racism, the environment and civil rights.
These days pop culture is all about narcissistic gratification of material desires. That and the gratuitous satisfaction of violence found in video games and movies.
Unions were once the proud voice of labor. I grew up in Kenosha, Wisconsin. It was the quintessential manufacturing town. At 7 a.m. We could hear the factory whistles all over town, heralding another day for union employees at American Motors (AMC), Anaconda American Brass, Snap-on Tools, McWhite Wire Rope, Tri-Clover Ladish and Jockey International. On Labor Day, the annual parade included marchers and floats in a mile long procession. The AMC plant alone employed some 8,000 workers, supporting about 25,000 households.
Union membership is about 1/3 of its level during the heydays of the 1950s. The portion of private sector workers in unions fell to just 6.6 percent last year, from 6.9 percent in 2011, causing some labor specialists to question whether private sector unions were sinking toward irrelevance. Private sector union membership peaked at around 35 percent in the 1950s.
The biggest segment of labor union membership is now in the public sector. Teacher's unions have come under particular fire as the move to shift education dollars from public to charter schools has picked up steam. “Right to work” laws have been passed in 24 states. Auto manufacturing plants now pay people about half of what they did when unions were dominant.
All of the above factors have collectively meant the end of the liberal aspect of American society. One in four children live in poverty, and we have the highest prison population in the world. Even our prisons have been privatized. They are now big business.
According to Wikepedia, there are approximately 2 million inmates in state, federal and private prisons throughout the country. According to California Prison Focus, “no other society in human history has imprisoned so many of its own citizens.”
We are a permanent war culture, with civil rights on the run. I feel that the pendulum must soon begin to swing the other way. As our devastated economy and environment deepens, a new generation of Americans must rise up and take back our land....by any means necessary.
— 30 —
Dave World music
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Black Gold (Oil) music video
Dedicated to the memory of Jeffrey Lynn Ames (1957-2012)
who built the computer that made this song possible
TO BUY THE Mp3
click here ==>http://www.cdbaby.com/cd/daveworld2
Black Gold (Oil) Street Mix
Dave World wrote the song prompted by wars in the Middle East and, most recently, by the British Petroleum oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
He says “But, it's about much more than that. Black Gold (Oil) is a metaphor for all kinds of addictions to substances and states of mind. Human behavior is affected by addictions to many different things.”
Then there are the phases through which society and nature cycle. Something underground is extracted, brought to earth's surface, processed, used and discarded. It then goes back to the earth's surface, much more toxic than it was when sealed underground. Similarly, we humans come from dust, dance through life, and return to dust. Whole societies do the same thing.
Dave World sings “Oil, the ultimate fuel of modern man, brought us out of the stone age. Oil, the ultimate goo, brought us into the plastic age. Oil, the Black Gold of modern man: some people will kill for it.”
The psychedelic nature of Black Gold (Oil) Street Mix is true to tones and effects from back in the early days of electro and techno music. At the same time the listener is treated to some a capella verses creatively delay-looped, yet cleanly rendered. One can understand every word of this song. The medium is a message.
“You're so black, and dirty, and greasy. I love you. Oil, I couldn't get away from you if I really tried. And I really tried.” The love-hate nature of addiction in a nutshell.
Dave World was born and raised in urban northern Illinois, and now resides in rural northern Wisconsin. Aside from music, his interests include ecology, communications, media analysis, social phenomena, healthy living and pets.
Who does he count among his musical influences? Arcade Fire, Laurie Anderson, Badger Singers, Muse, Donna Summer, Devo, Snap, Yoko Ono, Technotronic, Public Enemy, Sparks, LL Cool J, Dead Kennedys, John Prine, Iris DeMent, Oingo Boingo, Buffy Sainte-Marie, John Trudell, Katie Tunstall, Kanye West, Cher, Rihanna, and Green Day. Radio stations KROQ (Los Angeles), B96 - WBBM (Chicago), WOJB (Hayward, Wisconsin), and KBMX (Duluth/Superior).
Call Dave World eclectic.
Black Gold (Oil) was crafted in Acoustica's Mixcraft program. Two different virtual synthesizers make up the bulk of the instrument tracks. A Yamaha YPT 300 keyboard served as the MIDI controller of Mixcraft's Moog synth emulation. A separate synth program, Rubber Duck by d-lusion, is modeled after an early Roland TB-303. Its output was rendered to WAV, and the file was then inserted into a Mixcraft project track. (Rubber Duck's tiny memory footprint requires only 4 KB on disk.) The percussion track was created by combining Acoustica Beatcraft renderings and Mixcraft loops.
An Aardvark Direct Pro 24/96 was used to route signals from the Yamaha and a Shure SM 58 microphone into a PC, where the mixing and processing took place. Most notable among the VST plug-ins were Antares AutoTune Evo, BTS TremeloDelay, and Matt's Wah Wah. Compression, limiting and chorus effects utilized Kjaerjus Audio virtual technology, all included in Mixcraft's lineup.
AARDVARK DIRECT PRO 24/96 http://www.pcrecording.com/aardvark.htm
D-LUSION RUBBERDUCK http://www.d-lusion.com/ProductsRubberduck.html
"Techno music defeats . . . the alienating effect
of mechanisation on the modern consciousness".
Mc Leod, K.,"Space oddities: aliens, futurism and meaning in popular music", Popular Music (2003) Volume 22/3. Copyright 2003 Cambridge University Press, pp. 337–355.
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Dave World & Jim Bailey's personal picks
♦ Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs
by Johann Hari
© 2015 Bloomsbury USA ISBN-10: 1620408902 and ISBN-13: 978-1620408902
♦ End Game — volumes one and two
by Derrick Jensen
© 2006 Pedia Press ISBN 1-58322-730X and 1-58322-724-5
♦ Spirit of the Ojibwe: Images of Lac Courte Oreilles Elders
by Sara Balbin, James R. Bailey and Thelma Nauquonabe
© 2012 Holy Cow! Press ISBN 978-0-9823545-0-6
For a review of this book from the Minneapolis Star Tribune go HERE.
♦ The Race For What's Left: The Global Scramble For The
World's Last Resources by Michael T. Klare
© 2012 Picador ISBN 978-1-25002397-1
♦ Vultures' Picnic: In Pursuit of Petroleum Pigs, Power Pirates,
and High-Finance Carnivores by Greg Palast
♦ The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism
by Naomi Klein;
©2007 Holt and Company ISBN-978-0-312-42779-3;
♦ eaarth Making a Life on a Tough New Planet
by Bill McKibben;
©2010 St. Martin's Press ISBN-978-0-312-54119-4 <www.stmartins.com>
For the New York Times review of this book, go HERE.
♦ Water Wars - Privatization, Pollution and Profit by Vandana Shiva;
©2002 South End Press - Library of Congress control # 20022100340
♦ Duluth by Gore Vidal;
©1983 Random House ISBN-978-0-52738-3 <www.randomhouse.com>
♦ The God Particle: If The Universe is the Answer,
What is the Question? by Leon Lederman;
©2006 Mariner Books ISBN-13: 978-0618711680
♦ Inventing The AIDS Virus by Peter H. Duesberg PhD
©1996 Regnery Publishing ISBN-0-89526-470-6 <www.regnery.com>
this page short URL = http://goo.gl/1rzNhl
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Dave World And The God Particle:
The Conundrum Theory
By Dave World ©2011
I first became aware of the God Particle at least fifteen years ago. It could have been 20 years ago. I do not remember if I heard of the God Particle on television or read about it in print. I said to myself, “God Particle, what do they mean, what are they saying”? So I began to read as much as I could about the God Particle. I watched anything about the God Particle that came on television. So, what is the God Particle?
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Scientists say it is possibly the smallest subatomic particle in the universe. Some say the God Particle could reveal the origins of the universe. The God Particle is called the Higgs boson, field or particle by the scientific community. It is named after Peter Higgs, an English theoretical physicist. The Higgs boson, what an exciting name, NOT! The God Particle, though, is a thought provoking and intriguing name. As far as I know, the name God Particle started in the press and caught on. Who ever came up with the name God Particle to describe the Higgs boson hit the nail on the head.
I have always had a fascination with particle physics. I grew up in Aurora, Illinois, in the 1960s and the 1970s. During that time Fermilab, which is just outside of Aurora, Illinois, was being planned and then built. When I was eleven I was in a Boy Scout troop that was one of the first groups to tour the new Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It was a great experience that I remember all these years later. One kid in the troop had a dad who worked at Fermilab. His dad took us all around the underground rings.
Then a couple of the scientists came out and talked to the troop. They explained what was going on in the accelerator, and then took our questions. About a year later my mom took me, my sister and brothers to an opening tour of Fermilab. This was a tour for the general public to come see the new facility. Guides showed people around, took questions and served refreshments. Yes, from an early age I have always had a strong mental image of particle accelerators.
I had been thinking about the God Particle recently, when I came across an entry for a book called The God Particle. I had known about the book for a while, but had never read it. So I thought it was probably time to read it. I think that had a lot to do with the advent of the Internet. Just Google the God Particle and see what you get. What an excellent book The God Particle is. I appreciate that the author, Leon Lederman, did not treat readers like we were beneath understanding anything in physics.
In his book Lederman gives us a great history lesson on the atom. I also enjoyed reading about his career. It was very insightful. The book also used humor and metaphors, which gave it a great perspective. A Nobel Prize laureate, he is also a teacher. In The God Particle, Lederman explains physics so a layperson can comprehend the topic. This information is mostly understandable. The math equations in the book are really complicated, but I would recommend this book to anyone wanting to read about the God Particle.
So here is my theory on the Higgs boson, a.k.a. The God Particle
THE CONUNDRUM THEORY:
EVERY THING IS NOTHING
NOTHING IS EVERYTHING
That sounds crazy, I know, but let me break it down like this. Scientists say that the universe which we know today, with billions and billions of stars and vast space, was once the size of an atom much much smaller than a hydrogen atom. They say that the big bang started our universe about fourteen billion years ago. When I say scientists, I mean astrophysicists, theorists, particle physicists, physicists, mathematicians, quantum theorists, experimenters, cosmologists, accelerator builders, and the entire world-wide physics community. The big bang theory is a widely accepted throughout the scientific community.
It takes a village to find the God Particle. Over the last sixty years, scientists have been able to discover smaller and smaller particles. There are hadrons, quarks and leptons, just to name a few. Now they are saying there may be an even smaller particle: the God Particle.
So, if I say everything is nothing, what I mean is absolute nothing on the subatomic scale. No trace of a particle, no signatures of a particle. There would be no chemical trace, no trace of any kind of energy or anything. Here is the conundrum. Absolute nothing within our physical universe, within the speed of light, 186,000 miles per second, becomes everything beyond the speed of light. So, for a millionth trillionth of a half second where within the speed of light meets beyond the speed of light is the God Particle. An analogy might be that the God Particle has one toe within the speed of light, and one toe over the speed of light. I know a millionth trillionth of a half second is not the real math number, but you get the idea: too fast to comprehend.
So where is the math to back this up? How do you measure absolute nothing within the speed of light, and everything beyond the speed of light? When I say everything beyond the speed of light what do I mean? Some scientists have theorized beyond the speed of light is an alternate universe. I say beyond the speed of light is opposite of our physical universe, but intrinsically linked to our physical universe. I believe the everything beyond the speed of light is a pure energy that can not necessarily be measured. It may be pure psychic energy, pure spiritual energy, God energy, soul energy. Beyond the speed of light could be all of the above or none of the above. Of course, there is absolutely no scientific proof of any of this.
My partner started reading some of this and said to me, “ I hope you know it is just semantics with all of those particle physicists”. That may be partly true, but I feel things can be learned from semantics. This is why I am including definitions and terms with this writing, to help keep me on track about the defining of the God Particle.
Conundrum theory says that because the God Particle is both within the speed of light and beyond the speed of light simultaneously, it has special properties. These properties, I believe, allow for matter to form in our universe. Let me try an analogy that has to do with building a foundation for a new home. The hole is dug for the foundation.The earth in this case represents beyond the speed of light. Next is the base which is usually six inches of washed gravel. The washed gravel represents the God Particle. Next the foundation is poured. This represents our physical universe.
So the God Particle acts as the base for which matter is formed. Of course there could not be a base if there was no ground for the base to sit on. The ground represents everything beyond the speed of light. Because of the ground under the base, the baseitself can then hold a foundation, the foundation in this case being our universe. Sound twisted enough? Because of a strong base and foundation, an entire house can be built, or an entire universe.
The Ancient Yin-Yang symbol
One more analogy is the yin-yang symbol. A simple line curves through a circle, separating the two halves. The two halves represent: within the speed of light and beyond the speed of light. Both completely different, but still of the same thing. The line that separates the two halves is the God Particle. In that place where the two halves meet, is both within the speed of light and beyond the speed of light. The God Particle may define the two halves and thus separate them. Without this action there would be no universe, no within the speed of light or beyond the speed of light, no nothing. How can the God Particle define the two halves? It is one in the same, meaning the God Particle is part of both halves.
Some scientists have theorized that the God Particle is part of a field called the Higgs field. To me this is an intriguing theory. Would that explain why some scientists believe that the God Particle could be pervasive throughout our universe? The God Particle may not be a particle at all. How can absolute nothing within the speed of light be a particle? Or everything beyond the speed of light be a particle? Some scientists have also referred to the God Particle as a zone, place, area, or other dimension. What is the mechanism in which the God Particle affects our universe?
When I say universe, I refer to the dictionary definition. I mean within the speed of light, beyond the speed of light, all seen and unseen matter, in short everything. This is just total speculation on my part. Could the mechanism of the God Particle be a manifestation at work? The Conundrum Theory says that the manifestation occurs when two exact opposites simultaneously are as one, which in turn creates the mechanism for the two exact opposites to exist.
Some theorists have even speculated that the God Particle could be self aware, or that there are different types of God Particles that do different things. When I think of the mechanism of the God Particle, I always end up thinking three dimensionally. Is the mechanism of the God Particle a force, energy, wave, or light? Could it be something that we as humans can not identify because it is unlike anything we have seen in the universe so far? So, where is the math to prove the existence of the Higgs boson a.k.a. the God Particle? Is it possible to prove mathematically the existence of the God Particle? Scientists do not even know for sure of the existence of the God Particle. I am one who believes that if it can be proven mathematically, then scientists are certain to try and prove it experimentally.
THEORIES, THEORIES, AND MORE THEORIES
In the world of physics there are many theories. Some of these theories are: the Big Bang Theory, the Quantum Theory, Supersymmetry, Grand Unification Theory, Superstring Theory, Unified Field Theory, Theory of Relativity, Gauge Theory, Big Crunch Theory, Chaos Theory, Wave Theory, Particle Theory Of Light, Wave Theory Of Light, Electromagnetic Theory, Photo Electric Theory, Quantum Field Theory, and Theory of Everything. Have I named enough? Yet there are many more.
I did a Google search for Paradox Theory and got 16,800,000 results. All of these theories are a good thing in my opinion. These theories keep physics moving along. I feel these theories are here to be proved or disproved scientifically, and mathematically. It is not just about proving a theory right, valuable knowledge can be learned from disproving a theory.
Besides the Theory of Relativity, I am particularly interested in Grand Unification Theory. If Grand Unification Theory was complete, humans would have a better understanding of gravity, something that affects us our entire life here on Earth. There are many theories about gravity. In Einstein's general relativity gravity is described as spacetime curvature instead of a force. Is there a opposite of gravity, and I do not mean zero gravity? I mean non-gravity. Conundrum Theory would say yes. Is there non gravity beyond the speed of light? Does the God Particle have a role in why gravity exists in the universe?
How would gravity and non-gravity have a symbiotic relationship where there would be a manifestation between the two that would create the mechanism for both to exist? Again this is just all speculation. Without hard math and scientific experimentation to prove the existence of the God Particle we can not know how it affects interactions in the universe. Today there are many more new theories that describe gravity as waves, or as particle-based. There are also theories that describe gravity as energy with gravitational field lines. Another emerging theory is the New Quantum Gravity Theory, which says split time and space to understand gravity.
God Particle Anatomy: yellow = within the speed of light;
blue = beyond the speed of light; green = manifestation mechanism
When I talk about psychic energy, God energy, soul energy, infinite energy, these are of an esoteric nature. How is science supposed to prove esoteric concepts with facts? I am trying to stick to the definitions of energy and force. When I look at those definitions and tie them to esoteric concepts, the scientific proof is not there. Until there is scientific experimentation and mathematics to back up esoteric concepts they remain just concepts.
Esoteric concepts are not without merit, though. If these concepts get us to open our minds to different possibilities, that is a good thing. Thinking about different possibilities can lead us to new theories. New concepts and theories come and go. Sometimes old concepts and theories are revisited with new knowledge that may support or disprove that theory or concept. This is the ebb and flow of physics.
Is the universe symmetrical, asymmetrical or non-symmetrical? The Conundrum Theory would say all three. Within the speed of light where we live is symmetrical. Beyond the speed of light is non symmetrical. Where symmetrical meets non symmetrical, the God Particle resides. Would that make the God Particle asymmetrical? If the God Particle is two complete opposites within one, then is that asymmetrical ? Some scientists have theorized that humans and life add an asymmetrical element to a symmetrical physical universe. Other scientists say they have proven through math that humans and life do not add an asymmetrical element to the universe. I say that humans and life do add an asymmetrical element to the universe. More on that when I get into the philosophy of the God Particle.
I cannot think about the Higgs boson a.k. a. God Particle without considering finite and infinite. The Conundrum theory says that the universe is both infinite and finite. Our physical universe is finite because the total amount of mass came from one source, the big bang. It is infinite because that total mass of our universe was always there, no matter whether it was the size of a subatomic particle, or of the universe we know today. Scientists have also theorized that the universe expands and contracts over many billions of years. This to me speaks of an eternal universe that is always there but just changes shape and size.
Again, is our friend, the God Particle, at work here? Boy, that God Particle must be working overtime to keep a universe this vast going. Another Conundrum Theory question is "What came first, the chicken or the egg?" Just kidding. I was wondering if you were still reading this. The question I asked myself is, “what came first, the Big Bang or the God Particle?” I say the God Particle came before the Big Bang. The God Particle, in my opinion, kicked the whole thing off. Where is the scientific proof?
God Particle points exponentially grown
Scientists are getting very close to seeing the very beginning of the universe. Other scientists have theorized that the God Particle did not exist in the beginning of the universe about fourteen billion years ago. Some scientists say the universe was in primordial existence, where there were no particles at all. I say that the God Particle would not have been affected by the intensity of the universe in the first moments after the Big Bang. Some scientists have theorized that the space our universe is expanding into is infinite. Did infinite space exist before the Big Bang?
QUESTIONS, QUESTIONS AND MORE QUESTIONS
There seem at times to be endless questions about the universe we live in and the mystery of life. There are many unanswered questions about the God Particle and its role in our universe. Why are there so many opposites? Infinite and finite, strong force and weak force, with in the speed of light and beyond the speed of light, symmetrical and non symmetrical, positive and negative, gravity and non gravity. Should matter and antimatter be considered opposites? If I go by definitions, they are opposites. Anti-proton has the word opposite in its definition. Does duality theory support the existence of the Higgs boson/God Particle?
Where are the anti-particles in the universe today? Is there anti “anything” beyond the speed of light? Scientists have made great strides in understanding anti-matter in our universe. Where is the matter/anti-matter naturally occurring in the physical universe we know today? Conundrum theory would say the God Particle is why there is matter and antimatter.
Think of the God Particle as a master brake cylinder regulating the various brake functions. In this case the God Particle is a master regulator of what seem to be complete opposites in our universe. Because of this master regulating mechanism of opposites, the God Particle creates existence, without this master regulating mechanism the opposites would cancel each other out, thus no existence. How does the God Particle achieve this master regulating mechanism of opposites?
The word “manifestation” would describe what I am saying. This manifestation of opposites is the God Particle becoming one in the same with both opposites. When the God Particle is one in the same with the opposites, the manifestation occurs with the mechanism, resulting in opposites and existence itself. Why is the God Particle also referred to as the Top Quark, the “Ultimate Particle”?
Once again, I am trying to stick to dictionary definitions. Having read the definitions, I would describe the God Particle as top or ultimate. If the God Particle is top or ultimate, I surmise that the God Particle by definition has a master regulatory role of existance of the universe. Why does the Top Quark as described by physicists have so much mass? The scientists theorize the top quark's mass is rest mass. The top quark, being the God Particle, is nothing and everything at the same time. This might explain why the top quark has the mass that it does. Is the God Particle directly responsible for the size of all particles? This is one of the questions facing physicists today. If the God Particle is responsible for particles existing in the first place, would that determine their size and type? Is the God Particle the Holy Grail of quantum mechanics?
SPIRITUALITY, ESOTERIC MATTERS, RELIGION, AND
GOING WAY OUT ON A PHILOSOPHICAL LIMB
How can I talk about the God Particle without talking about religion? Is there something religion teaches us that we can use in our understanding the God Particle? I do not espouse any one religion. I grew up Catholic, but by the time I was a junior in high school had I stopped going to church, even though I was going to a Catholic High School.
Now I look to religions for their commonality. I learn what I can about their different beliefs. There are common themes that run through the major religions. One common belief is that of a God. Another belief shared by religions is the belief that a soul lives on after we die, or that the soul is reincarnated and lives on that way. There is also common belief in an afterlife in heaven. That we are all God's children is yet another commonality. We are made in the image of God, who created the heavens, earth and universe. God is everything. We humans and all forms of life are part of that everything. These and many more concepts are shared by Earth's religions.
When I was in the sixth grade I was an altar boy. We recited a prayer that, in part, said “We believe in one God, maker of heaven and earth”. That there is no beginning time, and no end time, this was the Catholic way of explaining infinity to humans. Other religions have the same type of prayers, done in their own ways, but still referring to the infinity of God and the universe. I see the major religions as saying that God is infinite, and so are humans.
Is the God Particle part of that infiniteness, or does it create the conditions for infiniteness? Another commonality is a creation story told not only among major religions, but also among indigenous people around the world. Native Americans have a creation story that in full form takes hours to tell. I also find that individual prayer or meditation, and group prayer are both common. A fundamental principle among religions is group worship with song. What is it about the group connecting together spiritually that has been around as long as humans?
On a personal level, let me say that I worked in home health care for twelve years. In my final years, I did end of life hospice care. It was a humbling experience, being there for clients in their last days. Many times the dying person said they saw a light. Some said they had a dream of a light. Several had asked me if I had seen a light. On one occasion I was with a client when that person passed away. I was strange to me, as if her life light had gone out. Is that life light what religions refer to as our soul? This is where I ponder the idea of how the God Particle fits in to our own personal lives.
In our physical universe there are hundreds of billions of galaxies, with hundreds of billions of stars in each one. I know, I sound like Carl Sagan now, but when I was growing up I never missed him when he was on the Tonight Show. Consider the size of our Milky Way galaxy compared to the size of the rest of our universe. It is stunningly small.
Then the size of our solar system is even much more of a speck in size, compared to the rest of the universe. The Earth is a relativly small small small speck in the vast universe. When I then consider the size of a human body compared to the size of the universe, it is the tiniest of specks. Then consider the physical size of the human brain compared to the size of the universe. Not even a dust particle compared to the size of the universe. Now consider what the size the human soul could be.
Remember, I am going out on a limb whether you believe in soul or not. Is the human soul a manifestation of a light energy? How is the God Particle involved? Despite being less than a dust particle in size compared to the size of the universe, each of us holds the entire universe within. It is sort of like “everything is nothing and nothing is everything” when I try to think about a human soul that lives, and a body that dies. Do we contain a nothing/everything element that is our soul?
Does the God particle make that possible? We seem to come from nothing. Are humans nothing in the physical sense of our soul? At the same time we are everything and hold the entire universe within us. Is our everything (soul) what lives on eternally? Is it the God Particle that makes the (everything) possible in our soul? The only way the (everything), meaning spirit, soul can exist in the physical universe is to be in a mortal body. Is the God Particle the mechanism of how our souls go from mortal physical world to spiritual eternal? If everything in our physical universe came from a subatomic particle, and that particle was the God Particle, would that mean that the God Particle is in all of us?
When I consider humans as adding an asymmetrical element to the universe, I must consider the definition of soul. If I believe in the concept of soul, is the God Particle passed on through conception? Opposites, a sperm and egg, come together in conception; but particle-wise they are symmetrical. Is it the creation of soul that is the asymmetrical element going on in a symmetrical physical universe? What better way for the God Particle to pass along in the physical universe than during sexual pleasure of human beings, moments when we are at one with the universe?
I believe that if one believes in human soul, then that is a decent argument for an asymmetrical element in the physical universe. I had a client one time that was about two weeks away from dying. He told me it felt like he had lived his life so God could see the world in a unique way. “It is as if we are God looking at God” he told me. By that time he was not scared of death, just afraid about how much he would miss his children. This client of mine also told me that, as he got sicker, he kept getting the feeling he was part of something much bigger.
After he passed away, I went to the service. It was a Traditional Native American and Catholic hybrid service. I thought, “how can they have a dual service”? As it turns out, very well. The commonality between the two is what pulled it all together. Is life somehow intrinsically linked to the God Particle? I mean much more than a link, in that the God Particle may be responsible for the physical universe. Is there a spiritual link? Of course, this is one question science will never be able to answer.
I try to think of a commonality between physics, esotericism, religion and spirit. Religion gives us explanations as to why we are alive and why we die. It also tells us of a loving God. Physics is tries to explain, down to the absolute detail, why the physical universe is the way it is. Does explaining the physical universe down to the smallest detail get us closer to “God”? I say yes. God gave humans the brain power to do just that.
God Particle existence prior to Big Bang is
self-fulfilling prophesy after Big Bang
An analogy might be found in the United States landing on the moon in 1969. The public saw the first pictures of earth from the moon. Was that a spiritual moment in the evolution of our species? For the first time in human history we were far enough away from our planet to get a picture of it from that perspective. We then knew the world for what it is, a beautiful, small blue- and-white ball rotating in space. I was a young boy at the time, and I had a new sense of our tiny world in a vast universe.
Will the discovery of the Higgs boson (God Particle) be a spiritual moment in the evolution of our species, like seeing a picture of the whole world for the first time? One thing is for sure, physics is bound to make amazing discoveries in the decades ahead. As the technology evolves, more and more, details will emerge as to just what the entire universe is made of. Could the Higgs boson /God Particle be the key discovery that gives humans an entire picture of the universe? Some scientists have theorized that it will never be found.
Consider Albert Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity, which says that nothing can go faster than the speed of light. Since the God Particle is both beyond the speed of light and within the speed of light simultaneously, does that mean it would be impossible to find the God Particle? Some say it would take infinite energy to go faster than the speed of light. The conundrum might be that infinite energy is just exactly what exists beyond the speed of light.
Even though there is no scientific proof of what is absolutely beyond the speed of light, science still has good theories about what is beyond the speed of light. I feel that the technology to prove those theories is just not developed enough yet. To me religion and physics are complementary. They both in their own way help us answer the eternal question of why are we here. For some people religion helps them understand their mortality, faith, and God.
As physics gains a more complete understanding of the physical universe, it may help us live better lives in that physical universe. Thanks to physics, many technological advances have happened which shaped the modern world. These advances will keep coming, as will their effects in the modern world. Some have theorized that if they find the Higgs boson/God Particle, physics and the world will be changed forever.
I do not like to use the word “find” when it comes to the God Particle. As far as I know, the God Particle is not lost. The word “discover” does not necessary work for me either. One could say human beings are trying to discover the God Particle. Do we know if there is other intelligent life out there in the vast universe? Is there an advanced civilization that has already “discovered” the God Particle?
I have always thought that if there is other intelligent life in the universe, that would be incredible. If Homo sapiens is the only intelligent life in the universe, that would also be incredible. When it comes to the God Particle, they need to observe and record it. Do you have to record the God Particle in order to observe the God Particle? Oh, semantics. You have to love it. Can't live with it, can't talk without it.
I thank Leon Lederman for his eloquently written book, and I am glad there is someone in the physics community who understands that laypeople have an interest in physics. In The God Particle the author refers to God as female in gender. I also see God as female in gender. Not that God really has any specific gender. Why is there Mother Nature, for example? Women perpetuate life. I believe that an earth and universe this beautiful could only be made by a woman. I am a layperson trying to understand the God Particle and what it means to the universe, our world and our lives. I hope you have enjoyed reading this as much as I have writing it. I leave you with some of my favorite quotes.
“Nature is my manifestation of God. I go to nature every day for inspiration in the day's work. I follow in building the principles which nature has used in its domain.”
Frank Lloyd Wright
“The cosmic religious experience is the strongest and noblest driving force behind scientific research.”
GODSPEED, GOD PARTICLE
Take care, Dave World
TERMS & DEFINITIONS
anti : 1 a : of the same kind but situated opposite, exerting energy in the opposite direction, or pursing an opposite policy (anticlinal b : one that is opposite in kind to (anticlimax) 2 a : opposing or hostile to in opinion, sympathy, or practice (anti-Semite) b : opposing in effect or activity
antimatter : matter composed of the counterparts of ordinary matter, antiprotons instead of protons, positrons instead of electrons, and antineutrons instead of neutrons
area: 1: a level piece of ground 2: surface included within a set of lines; specif : the number of unit squares equal in measure to the surface 3 : AREAWAY 4 : a particular extent of space of surface or one serving special function 5 : the scope of a concept, operation, or activity : FIELD 6 : a part of the cerebral cortex having a particular function
asymmetric: asymmertria lack of proportion : not symmetrical ill -proportioned
conjecture: 1: interpretation of omens b: supposition 2 a : inference from defective of presumptive evidence SYN CONJECTURE, SURMISE, GUESS mean to draw an inference from slight evidence insufficient for definite knowledge; SURMISE implies even slighter evidence and suggests the influence of imagination or suspicion: GUESS stresses a hitting upon a conclusion either wholly at random or from very uncertain evidence
conundrum: 1 : a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun 2 a : a question or problem having only a conjectural answer b : an intricate and difficult problem synonym: see mystery
cosmology 1 a : a branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe b : a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe 2: a branch of astronomy that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe; also : a theory dealing with these matters
dimension: to measure out 1: extension in one direction : one of three or four coordinates determining a position in space or space and time 2 : an element represented in an equation by a symbol that functions analogously to symbols representing the three spatial dimensions and regarded as a constituent of a geometric space b : magnitude of extension in one direction or in all directions c : the range over which or the degree to which something extends : bodily form or proportions 3 : wood or stone cut to pieces of specified size
energy: 1 : vitality of expression 2 : the capacity of acting 3 : power forcefully exerted 4 : the capacity for doing work
energy level: one of the stable states of constant energy that may be assumed by a physical system
epistemology : the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge, especially with reference to its limits and validity
esoteric: 1 a : designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone b : of or relating to knowledge that is restricted to a small group 2 : limited to a small circle
eternal 1 a : having infinite duration : EVERLASTING b : of or relating to eternity c : characterized by abiding fellowship with God 2 a : continued without intermission : PERPETUAL b : seemingly endless 3 : INFERNAL 4 : TIMELESS
exponential 1 : of or relating to an exponent 2 : involving a variable exponent (10x is an ~ function) 3 : expressible or approximately expressible by an exponential equation (~curve) - exponentially
field 1 a : an open land area free of woods and buildings b : an area of cleared enclosed land used for cultivation or pasture 2 : an area or division of an activity 3 : a set of mathematical elements that is subject to two binary operations the second of which is distributive to the first and both of which yield an element and that constitutes a commutative group under the first operation and also under the second if the zero or unit element under the first is omitted
finite: 1 a : having definite or definable limits b : having a limited nature or existence 2 a : having a character completely determinable in theory or in fact by enumeration, measurement, or conceptualization b : neither infinite nor infinitesimal 3 : less than an arbitrary positive integer and greater than the negative of that integer
force: 1 a : strength or energy exerted or brought to bear : cause of motion or change : active power b : moral mental strength 2 : an agency or influence that if applied to a free body results chiefly in an acceleration of the body and sometimes in elastic deformation and other affects 3 : a body assigned to a military purpose
god : the supreme or ultimate reality : as: a : the Being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness whom people worship as creator and ruler of the universe b : the incorporeal divine Principle ruling over all as eternal Spirit : infinite mind : one controlling a particular aspect or part of reality
god particle: an informal name for the Higgs boson
infinite: 1 : subject to no limitations or external determination 2 : extending indefinitely : ENDLESS 3 : immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive : INEXHAUSTIBLE 4 A : extending or lying beyond any preassigned value however large (number of positive numbers) b: extending to infinity plane surface c : capable of being put into one to one correspondence with a proper part of itself
light : 1 a : something that makes vision possible b : the sensation aroused by stimulation of the visual receptors : BRIGHTNESS c : an electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range including infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and X rays in a vacuum with a speed of about 186,281 miles per second
light year : a unit of length in interstellar astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or 5,878,000,000,000 miles
manifest 1 : readily preceived by the senses and esp. by the sight 2 : easily understood or recognized by the mind : OBVIOUS : to make evident or certain by showing or displaying
manifestation 1 a : the act, process, or an instance of manifesting b : something that manifests c : one of the forms in which an individual is manifested d : an occult phenomenon 2 : a public demonstration of power and purpose
matter 1 : the substance or substances of which any physical object consists or is composed a : physical or corporeal substance in general, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, especially as distinguished from incorporeal substance, as spirit or mind, or from qualities, actions, and the like
mechanism 1 a : a piece of machinery b : a process or technique for achieving a result 2 : mechanical operation or action 3 : a doctrine that holds natural processes (as of life) to be mechanically determined and capable of complete explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry 4 : the fundamental physical or chemical processes involved in or responsible for an action reaction or other natural phenomenon
metaphysics 1 : a division of philosophy that is concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being and that includes ontology, cosmology, and often epistemology (2) : ontology 2 b : abstract philosophical studies : a study of what is outside objective experience
non : more at no, one : not : reverse of : absence of
ontology 1: a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being 2: a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of things that have existence
paradox 1 : a tenet contrary to received opinion 2a : a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true b : a self-contradictory statement that at first seems true c : an argument that apparently derives self-contradictory conclusions by valid deduction from acceptable premises 3 : something (as a person, condition, or act) with seemingly contradictory qualities or phases – paradoxical
parallel 1 a : extending in the same direction, everywhere equidistant and not meeting b : everywhere equally distant ( concentric spheres are~) 2 a : having parallel sides ( a ~ reamer b : being or relating to an electrical circuit having a number of conductors in parallel 3 a : similar, analogous, or interdependent in tendency or development b : readily compared : companion c : having corresponding syntactial elements d : keeping the same distance apart in musical pitch
place 1 a : a way for admission or transit b ; physical environment : SPACE c : physical surroundings : ATMOSPHERE 2 a : an indefinite region or expanse : AREA b : a building or locality used for a special purpose : the three-dimensional compass of a material object 3 a : a particular region or center of population b : HOUSE, HOMESTEAD 4 : a particular part of a surface or body : SPOT 5 a : relative position in a scale or sequence : DEGREE 6 a : a proper or designated niche b : an appropriate moment or point 7 a : an available seat or accommodation b : an empty or vacated position 8 : the position of a figure in relation to others of a row or series and esp. of one occurring after a decimal point 9 a : to identify by connecting with an associated context
quantum mechanics : a general mathematical theory dealing with the interactions of matter and radiation in terms of observable quantities only
quantum theory : a branch of physical theory based on the concept of the subdivision of radiant energy into finite quanta and applied to numerous processes involving transference or trans-formation of energy in an atomic or molecular state
regulate 1 a : to govern or direct according to rule b : to bring under the control of law or constituted authority 2 : to reduce to order, method, or uniformity 3 : to fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of change
semantics 1 : the study of meanings a : the historical and psychological study and the classification of changes in the signification of words or forms viewed as factors in linguistic development b: SEMIOTICS 2 : a branch of semiotics dealing with the relations between and what they refer to and including theories of denotation, extension, naming and truth 3 a : the meaning or relationship of meanings of a sign or set of signs; connotative meaning b : the exploitation of connotation and ambiguity (as in propaganda)
soul 1 : the immaterial essence, animating principle, or actuating cause of an individual life 2 a : the spiritual principle embodied in human beings, all rational and spirtual beings, or the universe b : GOD 3 : a person's total self 4 a : an active or essential part b : moving spirit : LEADER 5 a : man's moral and emotional nature b : the quality that arouses emotion and sentiment c : spiritual or moral force : FERVOR 6 : person 7 : EXEMPLIFICATION, PERSONIFICATION
speculate 1 a : to meditate on or ponder a subject : REFLECT b : to review something idly or casually and often inconclusively 2 : to assume a business risk in hope of gain
spiritual 1 : of, relating to, or consisting of spirit : INCORPOREAL 2 a : of or relating to sacred matters (songs) b : ecclesiastical rather than lay or temporal (lords) 3 : spiritually akin or related (~home) (~heir) 4 a : of or relating to ghosts or similar super natural beings b : SPIRITUALISTIC
speed of light : the distance light can travel in a unit of time through a given substance : light travels through a vacuum 186,000 miles per second
surmise : to imagine or infer on slight grounds : GUESS : a thought or idea based on scanty evidence : CONJECTURE
symbiosis 1 : the living together in more or less intimate association or close union of two dissimilar organisms 2 : the intimate, living together of two dissimilar organisms in a mutually beneficial realtionship; MUTUALISM – symbiotic
symmetrical 1 : having , involving, or exhibiting symmetry 2 : having corresponding points whose connecting lines are bisected by a given point of perpendicularly bisected by a given line or plane (~curves) 3 : being such that the terms may be interchanged without altering the value, character, or truth (~equations) 4 a : capable of division by a longitudinal plane into similar halves (~plant parts) b : having the number of members in each whorl of floral leaves 5 : affecting corresponding parts simultaneously and similarly 6 : exhibiting symmetry in a structural formula : being a derivative with groups substituted symmetrically in the molecule : SYMMETRIC
theory 1 : the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another 2 : the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art (music ~) 3 : a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena (wave~ light) 4 a : a hypothesis assumed for t;he sake of argument or investigation b : SUPPOSITION, CONJECTURE c ; a body of theorems presenting a concise systematic view of a subject (~ of equations) 5 : abstract thought : SPECULATION
ultimate 1 a : most remote in space or time : FARTHEST b : last in a progression : FINAL c : EVENTUAL d : EXTREME, UTMOST 2 : finally reckoned 3 a : BASIC FUNDAMENTAL b : incapable of further anaylsis, division, or separation : ELEMENTAL 4 : MAXIUM
universe 1 : the whole body of things and phenomena observed or postulated : COSMOS 2 a : a systematic whole held to arise by and persist through the direct intervention of divine power b : the world of human experience c : MILKY WAY GALAXY : an aggregate of stars comparable to the Milky Way galaxy 3 : a distinct field or province of thought or reality that forms a closed system or self-inclusive and independent organization 4 : POPULATION